", "The United States Public Health and Marine-Hospital Service", "An Introduction to UMass Medical School", "College Basketball Teams—Division I Teams", "Cornell Rowing Excels at Eastern Sprints", Professional Golfers' Association of America, The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action, Massachusetts Office of Travel and Tourism, Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, Office of Housing and Economic Development, Office of Labor and Workforce Development, cities with populations exceeding 100,000, Longfellow House–Washington's Headquarters, Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Massachusetts&oldid=1001270168, States and territories established in 1788, States of the East Coast of the United States, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from June 2018, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles lacking reliable references from December 2020, Articles with failed verification from September 2019, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2019, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  During the early and mid-19th century, immigrant groups began arriving in Massachusetts in large numbers; first from Ireland in the 1840s; today the Irish and part-Irish are the largest ancestry group in the state at nearly 25% of the total population.  Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance. , In 2018, Massachusetts's overall educational system was ranked the top among all fifty U.S. states by U.S. News & World Report. , The Battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the American Revolutionary War and were fought in the eponymous Massachusetts towns. , Currency was another issue in the colonies. U.S. Supreme Court Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 4 Wall.  Both religious dissent and expansionism resulted in several new colonies being founded shortly after Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay elsewhere in New England. It is home to the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry.  Massachusetts has a total of 1,110 miles (1,790 km) of freight trackage in operation. The Supreme Court late Wednesday, Nov. 25. Although much of Massachusetts had been cleared for agriculture, leaving only traces of old-growth forest in isolated pockets, secondary growth has regenerated in many rural areas as farms have been abandoned.  The descendants of the Puritans belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the various Congregational churches, the United Church of Christ and congregations of the Unitarian Universalist Association. Among those who objected to this later in the century were the English Quaker preachers Alice and Thomas Curwen, who were publicly flogged and imprisoned in Boston in 1676. , There are 50 cities and 301 towns in Massachusetts, grouped into 14 counties. On May 17, 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S. to legalize same-sex marriage after a Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruling in November 2003 determined that the exclusion of same-sex couples from the right to a civil marriage was unconstitutional. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful scientific, commercial, and cultural role in the history of the United States. Climate change in Massachusetts will affect both urban and rural environments, including forestry, fisheries, agriculture, and coastal development.  Abolitionists John Brown and Sojourner Truth lived in Springfield and Northampton, respectively, while Frederick Douglass lived in Boston and Susan B. Anthony in Adams, Massachusetts.  Massachusetts is home to a small community of Greek Americans as well, which according to the American Community Survey there are 83,701 of them scattered along the state (1.2% of the total state population). American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, "2015 State Scorecard Rank—Massachusetts", "Boston Takes Top Spot Again in City Energy Efficiency Scorecard", "Massachusetts Regional Planning Agencies", "Air Travel's Hassles Drive Riders to Amtrak's Acela", "T announces summer Cape Cod train service", The Woods Hole, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Steamship Authority, "Massachusetts Passenger and Freight Rail", "Massachusetts State Rail Plan, May 2018", "Massachusetts State Fact Sheet: Rail Fast Facts For 2017", "Public Use Airports Locations | Mass.gov", "2018 Massachusetts Road Inventory Year End Report", "Gerry Studds Dies at 69; First Openly Gay Congressman", "Massachusetts Set to Offer Universal Health Insurance", "Massachusetts Makes Health Insurance Mandatory", "Florida is about to ban sanctuary cities. Fifteen other regional transit authorities provide public transportation in the form of bus services in the rest of the state. In more rural areas in the western part of Massachusetts, larger mammals such as moose and black bears have returned, largely due to reforestation following the regional decline in agriculture. In her letter, Theoharides stresses that as of 2020, the Commonwealth has experienced property damage attributable to climate change of more than $60 billion. On April 22, 2020, the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs of Massachusetts, Kathleen A. Theoharides, released a Determination of Statewide Emissions limits for 2050.  In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to legally recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court's decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health. , In 1641, Massachusetts expanded inland significantly, acquiring the Connecticut River Valley settlement of Springfield, which had recently disputed with, and defected from its original administrators, the Connecticut Colony.  It connected areas that were once divided by elevated highway (much of the raised old Central Artery was replaced with the Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy Greenway), and improved traffic conditions along with several routes.. Out of the state house's 160 seats, Democrats hold 127 seats (79%) compared to the Republican Party's 32 seats (20%), an independent sits in the remaining one, and 34 out of the 40 seats in the state senate (85%) belong to the Democratic Party compared to the Republican Party's six seats (15%). There, more frequent intercity service is provided by private bus carriers, including Peter Pan Bus Lines (headquartered in Springfield), Greyhound Lines, OurBus and BoltBus.  In addition, there are many community dailies and weeklies. In February 2017, U.S. News & World Report ranked Massachusetts the best state in the United States based upon 60 metrics including healthcare, education, crime, infrastructure, opportunity, economy, and government. , In 2020, the state legislature overrode Governor Charlie Baker's veto of the ROE Act, a controversial law that codified existing abortion laws in the event that the Supreme Court overturned Roe v. Wade, dropped the age of parental consent for those seeking an abortion from 18 to 16, and legalized abortion after 24 weeks, if a fetus had fatal anomalies. Far southeast coastal areas are the broad transition zone to Humid Subtropical climates. Circuit Courts, as well as the judges thereof, are authorized, by the fourteenth section of the Judiciary Act, to issue the writ of habeas corpus for the purpose of inquiring into the cause of commitment, and they have In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. Freshwater fish species in Massachusetts include bass, carp, catfish, and trout, while saltwater species such as Atlantic cod, haddock, and American lobster populate offshore waters. , Massachusetts manufactured 3.4 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking tenth among the 48 states. Religious intolerance continued. , The United States Census Bureau estimated that the population of Massachusetts was 6,892,503 on July 1, 2019, a 5.27% increase since the 2010 United States Census. 71 U.S. (4 Wall.)  In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts.  While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were generally dependent on hunting, gathering and fishing for most of their food.  This established Massachusetts's southern border in the west, though surveying problems resulted in disputed territory until 1803–04. Rock would later campaign for equal pay for these and other black soldiers.  This is almost twice as much as the average for the contiguous United States. Plimoth Plantation and Old Sturbridge Village are two open-air or "living" museums in Massachusetts, recreating life as it was in the 17th and early 19th centuries, respectively.  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