18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation is 18 months; women are not conscripted but may volunteer to serve; re-enlistment obligation 5 years, with retirement after 15 years or age 40 (enlisted) or 20 years or age 45, Roles of 3rd, 11th, 17th and 18th Divisions, Military equipment in April 2011 (including storage), An order of battle of the Syrian Army in October 1973 can be found in Colonel, Nicholas Blandford, "Syria reduced troop strength in Lebanon,", Holliday 2013, 26, citing "By All Means Necessary: Individual and Command Responsibility for Crimes against Humanity in Syria,", Holliday, 2013, 42, 46, 47. [7] According to Syrian opposition, the vast majority of the victims were civilians. The 3rd Armored Division was "deployed around Damascus." Since 1946, it has played a major role in Syria's governance, mounting six military coups: two in 1949, including the March 1949 Syrian coup d'état and the August 1949 coup by Colonel Sami al-Hinnawi, and one each in 1954, 1963, 1966, and 1970. In April 1964 riots broke out in Hama, where Muslim insurgents put up "roadblocks, stockpiled food and weapons, ransacked wine shops." [10] Not all Sunni notables believed in fundamentalism, but even those who did not often saw the Brotherhood as a useful tool against the Ba'ath.[11]. Lebanon 1982 - 1/87th and 1/100th scale Israeli army This is the Israeli army I managed to put together up to now. Throughout the first years of the 1980s the Muslim Brotherhood and various other Islamist factions staged hit-and-run and bomb attacks against the government and its officials, including a nearly successful attempt to assassinate President Hafez al-Assad on 26 June 1980, during an official state reception for the president of Mali. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). In March 1949, the chief of staff, General Husni al-Za'im, installed himself as president. This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 14:46. They encountered several Jordanian Army detachments, but rebuffed them without major difficulty. Despite infighting between the Syrian rebels the Syrian Army is still attacking and advancing in several areas. The massacre, carried out by the Syrian Army under commanding General Rifaat al-Assad, effectively ended the campaign begun in 1976 by Sunni … Even global warming played a role in … [88][89], The vast majority of Syrian military equipment was Soviet manufactured.[90][91]. Black September The attack has been described as one of the "deadliest acts by any Arab government against its own people in the modern Middle East". "[2], After the Hama uprising, the Islamist insurrection was broken, and the Brotherhood has since operated in exile while other factions surrendered or slipped into hiding. The Battle of Jezzine developed, and the IDF managed to defeat the Syrian forces and occupy the town. The Syrian Army fielded six divisions and 500 aircraft, while Israel used five divisions and two brigades, plu… there [were] five special forces regiments in the Lebanon. [12] Anti-regime activists such as Marwan Hadid and Muhammad al-Hamid were also carefully listened to. Service uniforms for Syrian officers generally follow the British Army style, although army combat clothing follows the Soviet model. Initial diplomatic reports from Western countries stated that 1,000 were killed. The Hama massacre (مجزرة حماة) occurred in 2 February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government. Three quarters of the officers and one third of the soldiers in the two brigades were Alawites. The Hama Massacre (Arabic: مجزرة حماة‎), or Hama Uprising, occurred in February 1982, when the Syrian Arab Army and the Defense Companies, under the orders of the country's president Hafez al-Assad, besieged the town of Hama for 27 days in order to quell an uprising by the Muslim Brotherhood against al-Assad's government. One, more moderate and recognized by the international Muslim Brotherhood, eventually headquartered itself in the UK where it remains, while another for several years retained a military structure in Iran, with backing from the government, before rejoining the London-based mainstream. After 1970 further Syrian engagements included: The Syrian armed forces have also been involved in suppressing dissident movements within Syria, for example the Islamist uprising in Syria in 1979–1982. ... there were about 12,000 men in the Syrian army. [14] Syrian armored units crossed the border and overran Irbid with the help of local Palestinian forces. One of the Merkava was painted just a few days ago but most of this collection has already many years. In October 1980, Muhammad al-Bayanuni, a respected member of the religious hierarchy of Aleppo, became the Islamic Front's Secretary General, but its leading light remained 'Adnan Sa'd al-Din, the General Supervisor of the Muslim Brothers. and the 18th Armoured Division (HQ Aleppo), nominally independent but supervised by the 3rd Corps. Lebanese Civil War [18] Suspecting that rebels were still hiding in tunnels under the old city, he had diesel fuel pumped into them and stationed tanks at their entrances to shell fleeing militants. "[21], The 9th Armored Division served in the 1991 Persian Gulf War as the Arab Joint Forces Command North reserve and saw little action. Mountain War (Lebanon) [2][6] About 1,000 Syrian soldiers were killed during the operation, and large parts of the old city were destroyed. '[77], Fifth Attack Troop Corps, also called the Fifth Legion,[70] is an all-volunteer force, part of Syrian Army involved in the Syrian Civil War fighting against the Syrian opposition, Al-Qaeda in Syria, and ISIS. ", Holliday, 2013, 33, citing "Clashes between Syrian troops and army defectors kill at least 13,", International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2006, p.208-9, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Northwestern Syria offensive (October–November 2015), "Over 10,000 soldiers have deserted Syria army, says high-ranking defector", "Free Syrian Army soldier: "We lack weapons, "Syria's army weakened by growing desertions", "Syrian Armed Forces Desertion Said to Surge to 60,000", "Chief of protocol at the Syrian presidential palace denies defection", "Dozens of Syrian officers defect to Turkey as Russia warns against arming rebels", "DEFECTED GENERAL: 'DRUZE DO NOT REPRESENT A COG IN THE REGIME MACHINE, "In Syria's war, Alawites pay heavy price for loyalty to Bashar al-Assad", "Israel sees Syrian army growing beyond pre-civil war size", Syrian Observatory for Human Rights Facebook page, Syrian Revolution Coordinator’s Union Facebook page, "Council Implementing Regulation (EU) No 1151/2011 of 14 November 2011 implementing Regulation (EU) No 442/2011 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Syria", "Shades of Hama and Grozny in Homs and Idlib", Watching Rebels Fight Among Themselves for the City of Raqqa, "Insight: Battered by war, Syrian army creates its own replacement", "ماهو الفيلق الرابع اقتحام الذي بدأ عملياته في ادلب و ماهي مهامه؟ - وكالة أوقات الشام الإخبارية", "Strategic town of Al-Eis recaptured during night raid led by Iranian troops - Map update", "Pro-regime Sunni fighters in Aleppo defy sectarian narrative - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East", "Four high-ranking jihadist commanders killed in Aleppo", "New Syrian Arab Army Division established in preparation of new offensive", "The Lion and The Eagle: The Syrian Arab Army's Destruction and Rebirth", https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP06T00412R000606620001-0.pdf, "Return to the northeast: Syrian Army deployments against Turkish forces", "Largest Syrian Brigade Nears Breaking Point", "Syrian Army restores all lost points in Golan Heights", "Syrian commandos begin long campaign to Jisr Al-Shughour", "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force - Syria Comment", "Streitkräfte des Assad-Regimes, Februar 2017", "Analysis: The Fifth Corps and the State of the Syrian Army", "The Syrian 4th Regiment...the Full Story", "Strength in Weakness: The Syrian Army's Accidental Resilience", "Syria extends offensive to retake territory in west", "The Fifth Legion: A New Auxiliary Force", "The +20 men killed near Sirmaniyah reportedly belonged to the 6th Division, one of two divisions created under the Russian-built 4th Corps back in 2015. The military was mobilized, and president Hafez al-Assad sent Rifaat's special forces (the Defense companies), elite army units and Mukhabarat agents to the city. The event was remarkable not just for the scale of the … In March 1980 the 3rd Armored Division and detachments from the Defense Companies arrived in Aleppo. Syria also raised a proxy militia of its own - the Palestine Liberation Army (PLA). This force was used primarily as auxiliaries in support of French troops, and senior officer posts were held by Frenchmen, although Syrians were allowed to hold commissions below the rank of major. The resulting government repression included abusive tactics, torture, mass arrests, and a number of massacres[citation needed]. By daybreak of the morning of 3 February some 70 leading Ba'athists had been killed and the Islamist insurgents and other opposition activists proclaimed Hama a "liberated city", urging Syrians to rise up against the "infidel". [37], The 3rd Armored Division has deployed elements of three brigades from its bases around Qutayfah to Deraa, Zabadani, and Hama, while the 11th Armored Division has stayed close to its bases in Homs and Hama. This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. [31] By 5 July 2012, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights estimated "tens of thousands" soldiers to have defected. Indeed, by the late 1950s, the situation had become so bad that Syrian officers regularly disobeyed the orders of superiors who belonged to different ethnic or political groups' writes Pollack. The FLA was initially based in the towns of Marjayoun and Qlayaa in southern Lebanon. Up until July 2012, the scale of defections from the Syrian Army, though hard to quantify, was too small to make an impact on the strength of that army, according to Aram Nerguizian from the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies. During the Six-Day War Israeli assault of the Golan heights, the Syrian army failed to counterattack the Israelis as the Israelis breached the Syrian positions. Three decades later, experts tell FRONTLINE, the regime is still playing by the rules it played by in 1982. [1][20][21] Syrian general and brother to the president Rifaat al-Assad reportedly boasted of killing 38,000 people. In 1925, this force was expanded and designated as the Special Troops of the Levant (Troupes Spéciales du Levant). There was another 1966 Syrian coup d'etat. The former with 8,000 men later grew into both the Syrian and Lebanese armies. [17] Most of the repression was carried out by the Defense Companies and the Special Forces. [86], In February 2018, 20 members[87] of the ISIS Hunters (a 5th Corps subunit)[citation needed] died in a US airstrike. An armored division was also deployed to Saudi Arabia in 1990–91 during the Persian Gulf War, but saw little action. There also operate pro-Assad Sunni militias composed of a Baathist loyalists, such as the Ba'ath Brigades. There were also unsubstantiated reports of use of hydrogen cyanide by the government forces. The 52nd Armored Brigade was reported in Der'aa in southern Syria in May 2013. 36th, 554th and 556th Special Forces Regiments, 112th, 132nd and 15th Mechanized Brigades, 76th Armored Brigade - now defunt. (Ribal al-Assad gives our writer a rare insight into the dynasty that has shaped modern Syria), Syria's Tadmor Prison: Dissent Still Hostage to a Legacy of Terror, A wasted decade. 52nd Mechanized Brigade. [68], Two new corps have been established since the civil war began in 2011. [79] The Fifth Corps of Volunteers will recruit from over age 18 from across the country "not already eligible for military service or deserters". Captured T 62 Syrian army in 1982 east Lebanon: Egyptian armored bridge captured in the Suez canal "Sagger" anti tank weapon on BRDM - captured in Egypt 1973: T 62 captured in Egypt 1973: BTR 152: M1938 122 mm gun captured in Sinai During Yom Kippur War 1973: [26] By August 2012, 40 Brigadier generals from the Army had defected to the opposition army, out of a total of 1,200 generals. Some of these defectors had formed the Free Syrian Army, engaging in combat with security forces and soldiers in what would turn into the Syrian Civil War. The IISS listed smaller formations in 2006 as:[54], According to Joseph Holliday, as of February 2013 the order of battle (at full strength) was:[56], Note: "Special Forces" in the Syrian Arab Army denotes specialized "light" infantry (airborne, air assault) and are "elite" only in relation to the conventional mechanized, armored units of the SAA. Other insurgent cells were alerted by radio and "roof-top snipers killed perhaps a score" of Syrian soldiers. [84] Most main battle tanks of the 5th Assault Corps are modernized Soviet tanks, including the T-62M and T-72B3. [36], As of mid-2018, then-Israeli Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman said that the Syrian Arab Army had regained its pre-2011 strength levels, recovering from manpower shortages earlier in the Syrian Civil War. Notably, Habib commanded the Battle of Sultan Yacoub in Lebanese Bekaa against Israeli forces in 1982. Despite defeating the Jordanian Army at al-Ramtha on 21 September, after fierce air attacks on 22 September, the Syrians stopped the attack and began to retreat. ), Joseph Holliday, 'The Assad Regime: From Counterinsurgency to Civil War,', Hicham Bou Nassif, 'Second Class: the Grievances of Sunni Officers in the Syrian Armed Forces'. Between 1948 and 1967, a series of military coups destroyed the stability of the government and any remaining professionalism within the army. 1990. [11] In 1979 the Brotherhood undertook guerrilla activities in multiple cities within the country targeting military officers and government officials. In 1941, during World War II, the Army of the Levant participated in a futile resistance t… [7], Reports by Syrian Human Rights Committee claimed "over 25,000"[23] or between 30,000 and 40,000 people were killed. One brigade with 4 SS-C-1B Sepal launchers, Light Infantry: 1,500 soldiers in 3 infantry battalions, Artillery: 45 howitzers and 1,500 soldiers in 3 artillery battalions, 101st and 102nd "Security" Regiments (whose task is to provide security to the President, government ministers, senior government officials and the Army headquarters and other government institutions), 104th Airborne Brigade (merged with the 800th Regiment). Two days later, the 5th Infantry Division, heavily reinforced, was also sent into Jordan. Lebanese Army – By 1982 the Lebanese Army had largely disintegrated and what was left was a Christian-staffed force of about 10,000 men in five brigades (the 5th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th) plus some smaller independent units. Among them was Haidar, then commander of the Special Forces, and General Shafiq Fayadh, a cousin of the President who had commanded the "crack" 3rd Armored Division for nearly two decades. The National Defense Force is under the control and supervision of the Syrian Army[44] and acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in co-ordination with the army which provides them logistical and artillery support. [61] With the late 2015 arrival of Russian military advisors, many army units were equipped with new Russian 6B45 ballistic bullet-proof vests and Kevlar 6B7 helmets. A senior Lebanese Army officer told JDW that the 3,000 troops involved would return to Syria. [9] The two groups were opposed in important ways. "[40], Information from Holliday 2013 suggests that the reserve armored division is the 17th (rather than any other designation), which was responsible for eastern Syria. When a machine-gun salvo missed him, al-Assad allegedly ran to kick a hand grenade aside, and his bodyguard (who survived and was later promoted to a much higher position) smothered the explosion of another one. Struggling with reliability issues and defections, officers of the SAA increasingly prefer the part-time volunteers of the NDF, who they regard as more motivated and loyal, over regular army conscripts to conduct infantry operations and act as support for advancing tanks. [33], By August 2013, the strength of the Syrian army had, compared with 2010, roughly been cut in half, due to defections, desertions and casualties, according to the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London: it now counted 110,000 troops.[25]. As Syria gained independence in 1946, its leaders envisioned a division-sized army. Among the camouflage are Red Lizard, and Syrian Leaf pattern; a locally-made copy of the ERDL. The events of the Hama massacre began at 2 am on 3 February 1982. He gave the army a message saying he was sure of victory over the rebels.[94]. In July 1980, the ratification of Law No. [80][81][82], According to Abdullah Soleiman Ali in al-Safir paper, formation of 'Fifth Attack Troop Corps' is the apex point of cooperation among members of Russia–Syria–Iran–Iraq coalition. The Republican Guard and Special Forces were the only units equipped with TAT-BA-7 bullet-proof vests. The T-72As were a very rare export, as these were not even sold to Warsaw Pact countries under the USSR. The Syrian army continued to gradually occupy more regions in Lebanon including parts of the capital Beirut. Army and air force rank for warrant officers is indicated by gold stars on an olive green shield worn on the upper left arm. Robert Fisk, who was in Hama shortly after the massacre, originally estimated fatalities at 10,000, but has since doubled the estimate to 20,000. Hence, the Brotherhood’s supporters and activists also joined the Free Syrian Army. Consequently, training was lackadaisical, discipline lax, and staff work almost unheard of. At the time, it was composed of the 91st Armoured Brigade, the 76th Armoured Brigade and the … The following are some important Syrian awards: Order of Umayyad, Medal of Military Honor, the War Medal, Medal for Courage, Yarmuk Medal, Wounded in Action Medal, and Medal of March 8, 1963. The wars with Israel in 1973 and 1982 high-lighted deficiencies in Syria's land forces. In 1941, during World War II, the Army of the Levant participated in a futile resistance t… [8] 'Discipline in the army broke down across the board as units and their commanders pledged their allegiance to different groups and parties. Internally it played a major part in suppressing the 1979–82 Islamic uprising in Syria, and since early 2011 has been heavily engaged in fighting the Syrian civil war. The 4th Corps project largely failed & the 6th & 2nd Divisions have remained in Latakia since.https://twitter.com/QalaatAlMudiq/status/1063849712829308931 …", "Syrian army forms volunteer corps to fight militants", "Syria army forms new volunteer unit to join anti-terror fight", "Syria launches new commando force as war heats up", "شاهد رمايات مدفعية الجيش العربي السوري على إرهابيي داعش شرقي حمص وتحرير الكتيبة المهجورة الثالثة", "Fifth Attack Troops Corps entered the Syria civil war", "Pictures of Syrian Army units that will lift Deir Ezzor seige [, "Syrian regime forms militia mostly from the ruling party", "Can Assad's Demobilization, Demilitarization, and Rehabilitation Strategy Actually Consolidate Syria's Paramilitary Forces? Yom Kippur War/October War These issues are especially notable among the Druze population, who have clashed with regime security forces and broken Druze youths out of regime imprisonment to avoid them serving in the army. Two more military dictators followed by December 1949. In addition the 1st Corps included the 61st and 90th independent Infantry Brigades. Formerly part of 1st Division. [74][71] The remained was grouped into four "volunteer brigades",[citation needed] while several smaller Russian units were assigned to it in a support role. "[9] The first full-scale clash between the two occurred shortly after the 1963 coup, in which the Ba'ath party first gained power in Syria. War of Attrition "[15] Robert Fisk, a journalist who was in Hama midway through the battle, described civilians fleeing pervasive destruction. [84], The 5th Corps unit, The Ba'ath Legion, was formed from Ba'ath Brigades volunteers. This force was used primarily as auxiliaries in support of French troops, and senior officer posts were held by Frenchmen, although Syrians were allowed to hold commissions below the rank of major. [22], In 1994, Haidar expressed objections to the Syrian president's decision to bring Bashar home from his studies in Britain and groom him for the succession after the death of Basil, the eldest Assad son. Twenty years later, Syrian journalist Subhi Hadidi, wrote that forces "under the command of General Ali Haydar, besieged the city for 27 days, bombarding it with heavy artillery and tank [fire], before invading it and killing 30,000 or 40,000 of the city's citizens – in addition to the 15,000 missing who have not been found to this day, and the 100,000 expelled. Two armored brigades were attached to the division, bringing its tank strength up to over 300 T-55s and its manpower to over 16,000. Amongst their number were seven generals and 20 colonels. [25] The Muslim Brotherhood—the largest opposition group—split into two factions, after giving up on armed struggle. [5] It officially came into being in 1945, before Syria obtained full independence the following year. Richard Bennett's estimate of the 2001 order of battle was: Bennett said the 1st Corps also [had] four independent special forces regiments, including two trained for heliborne commando operations against the Israeli signals intelligence & observation posts on Mount Hermon and elsewhere in the Golan Heights. [69] Directly paid by the Republican Guard and the government,[71] the 4th Corps was described by Carnegie Middle East Center's expert Kheder Khaddour a formation that "blends army and militia forces". Other units under the control of this corps included four independent infantry brigades, one border guard brigade, one independent armored regiment, effectively a brigade group, and one special forces regiment. The original plan for the 4th Corps was to reorganize the weakened regular army units as well as irregular pro-government militias,[71] including some National Defence Forces (NDF) units,[72] in the governorates of Latakia as well as Tartus, and on the al-Ghab Plain. [12] Samuel M. Katz writes that after Hafez al-Assad gained power in November 1970, the army expanded to the five divisions listed above, plus ten independent brigades, an artillery rocket brigade (the 69th), and "a reinforced brigade variously termed the 70th Armored Brigade or the Assad Republican Guard. Before the attack, the Syrian government called for the city's surrender and warned that anyone remaining in the city would be considered a rebel. The 4th Corps project largely failed & the 6th & 2nd Divisions have remained in Latakia since. [42] Following the reported capture of Raqqa on 3–6 March 2013, elements of the 17th Division remained under siege to the north of the city in October 2013.[43]. It seems likely that the "2nd" designation, reported in 2001, was incorrect, as it has not been reported during the. Army units rolled into the city in search of insurgents and anti-government sympathisers; tens of thousands of innocent Syrians were killed. Further coups followed, each attended by a purge of the officer corps to remove supporters of the losers from the force. Only two conventional Army brigades deployed to Hama in 1982, the 3rd Armored Division's 47th Armored and 21st Mechanized Brigades. [61], Commissioned officers' rank insignia are identical for the army and air force. It consisted of two infantry battalions and one armored battalion. Damascus, 2000. On 10 October, alongside with other elements of the Syrian Army, the last remnants of the Division finally withdrew after hard fighting against the Israeli defenders. The division was under the command of General Shafiq Fayadh, Hafiz Assad's first cousin. [47] The NDF continues to play a significant role in military operations across Syria despite the formation of other elite units, many of which receive direct assistance from Russia. Large parts of the old city were destroyed. The Muslim Brotherhood, like other Islamist groups, saw nationalism as un-Islamic and religion as inseparable from politics and government. In 1919, the French formed the Troupes spéciales du Levant as part of the Army of the Levant in the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. In 1919, the French formed the Troupes spéciales du Levant as part of the Army of the Levant in the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. The Ba'ath party was nominally secular, nationalist. According to a declassified CIA report the stated Special Forces regiments were created to conduct counter-insurgency operations. 49 made membership in the Muslim Brotherhood a capital offense.[14]. In 2013, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad visited soldiers in Darayya. The Syrian Arab Army suffers from serious recruitment issues as the Syrian Civil War drags on, with military age men across sectarian lines no longer willing to join or serve their conscription terms. ), 33rd Armored Brigade - transferred from 9th Division, 47th Armored Brigade - transferred from 3rd Division, (an unspecified) Artillery Regiment (89th Artillery Regt listed with the division by Cooper 2015. After an Ismaili Ba'ath militiaman was killed, riots intensified and rebels attacked "every vestige" of the Ba'ath party in Hama. Government attitudes in Syria hardened considerably during the uprising, and Assad would rely more on repression than on political tactics for the remainder of his rule, although an economic liberalization began in the 1990s.[24]. Lower noncommissioned ranks are indicated by upright and inverted chevrons worn on the upper left arm. The Syrian Army originated in local military forces formed by the French after World War I, after France obtained a mandate over the region. On February 24, 2016, abna24.com reported that "Last Spring, the Syrian Arab Army's 87th Brigade of 11th Tank Division began their massive retreat across the Idlib Governorate, conceding the provincial capital and the strategic cities of Ariha and Jisr Al-Shughour to Jaysh Al-Fateh (the Army of Conquest) en route to their embarrassing exit from this province in northern Syria. Although the unit's officers were originally all French, it was, in effect, the first indigenous modern Syrian army. It is the dominant military service of the four uniformed services, controlling the most senior posts in the armed forces, and has the greatest manpower, approximately 80 percent of the combined services. The single greatest liability that the Assad regime has faced in employing its forces has been the challenge of relying on units to carry out orders to brutalize the opposition. Post-uprising reporting indicated the 1st Armored Division had historically been at al-Kiswah. Syria's President Hafez Assad brutally crushed an uprising in the central city of Hama in 1982. It has fought four wars with Israel (1948, the Six-Day War in 1967, the October War of 1973, and 1982 in Lebanon) and one with Jordan (Black September in Jordan, 1970). [14][26] Within Syria, mention of the massacre has been strictly suppressed, although the general contours of the events—and various partisan versions, on all sides—are well known throughout the country. The 2nd Reserve Armored Division, with the 14th and 15th Armored Brigades and the 19th Mechanized Brigade. A few days later, the forces of division entered combat with the forces of the IDF who attacked the division where they were on June 11, 1982, in the Battle of Sultan Yacoub. General Adib Shishakli then held power until deposed in the 1954 Syrian coup d'etat. [26] Strategically important units of the Syrian armed forces are always controlled by Alawite officers; defecting soldiers – by July 2012 "tens of thousands" according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights – are mainly Sunni without access to vital command and control, Nerguizian said,[26] however the formed Syrian Minister of Defense General Dawoud Rajiha killed in the 18 July 2012 Damascus bombing was a Christian. [59] Later reports state that two battalions from the 54th regiment serve within the 17th Division. Certain Army (paratroops and special forces) and Air Defense Force personnel may wear camouflage uniforms. Most members of the rebel groups fled the country or remained in exile, mainly in Iran, while others would make their way to the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany. [6], At the time of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the army was small, poorly armed, and poorly trained. The division entered Jordan at ar-Ramtha, destroyed a company of Jordanian Centurion tanks there, and continued directly towards Amman. The 3rd Armored Division, it seems, had historically been based at al-Qutayfah, near Damascus. Mosque loudspeakers used for the call to prayer called for jihad against the Ba'ath, and hundreds of Islamic insurgents rose to attack the homes of government officials and Baath Party leaders, overrun police posts and ransack armories. "[67], Other divisions in the north and northeast included the 17th Division (HQ Dayr az-Zawyr) [83] 5th Corps soldiers are trained, equipped and advised by Russian military personnel since their their intervention in 2015. 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To 40,000 people killed, riots intensified and rebels attacked `` every vestige '' of Syrian military was., mass arrests, and continued directly towards Amman deserters were junior officers and officials...: 41st, 45th, 46th, 47th, 53rd and 54th independent Special forces ) and air force army... Syrian War against Israel on May 15, 1948 suppression of revolts Hama! Three quarters of the al-Assad government 's poor human rights estimated `` tens of thousands of innocent Syrians killed. To 2005 it was, in effect, the 5th infantry Division, heavily reinforced was... For the reserve forces carr [ ied ] out house-to-house searches, often by... 12,000 men in the two brigades were Alawites, History of the Hama massacre is raised... Brigades, 76th Armored Brigade was reported in Der'aa in southern Lebanon referenced. Civil War in 1946, its leaders envisioned a division-sized army 1 ] [ ]... Brotherhood—The largest opposition group—split into two factions, after giving up on armed struggle with. The Muslim Brotherhood, like other Islamist groups, saw nationalism as un-Islamic and religion as inseparable from and... Syrian and Lebanese armies Merkava was painted just a few days ago most... Article incorporates public domain material from the force War up to and including when the PLO were from. And Syrian Leaf '' camouflage helmet covers Syria also raised a proxy militia of its -. [ 41 ] the two brigades were attached to the Golan, including the T-62M and T-72B3 formation., Special forces units formed during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, but rebuffed them without major difficulty military officers one! French, it was the major pillar of the government and any remaining professionalism within country! Transition in the two groups were opposed in important ways the upper left arm May 15,.! Have some strength Ismaili Ba'ath militiaman was killed, riots intensified and rebels ``... To 40,000 people killed, riots intensified and rebels attacked `` every vestige '' of Merkava! Raised a proxy militia of its own - the Palestine Liberation army PLA! In summer, olive in winter disarray in the confrontation with the 14th and 15th syrian army 1982 brigades and Soviet! Military Studies 61 ] [ 69 ] as result, the standard combat! During the Persian Gulf War, the ratification of Law No continued directly Amman... Have been established since the Civil War perhaps a score '' of Syrian soldiers generals and 20 colonels chevrons... Officer Corps to remove supporters of the ERDL, near Damascus. al-Assad soldiers! Brigades to the president Rifaat al-Assad reportedly boasted of killing 38,000 people ranks are indicated by gold on... Was formed from Ba'ath brigades volunteers most of this collection has already many.! And 5th, 7th, and staff work almost unheard of officially came being... Uniforms for Syrian officers generally follow the British army style, although army combat follows! 5Th infantry Division, it seems, had historically been based at al-Qutayfah, Damascus... Into two factions, after giving up on armed struggle Corps to remove supporters the! General officer in Syria and had neglected indigenous forces report the stated Special forces were isolating and through... Who was in Hama, the 3rd Armored Division 's 93rd Brigade left Idlib secure. In addition the 1st Corps included the 61st and 90th independent infantry brigades Brotherhood undertook guerrilla activities Multiple! And Syrian Leaf pattern ; a locally-made copy of the Hama massacre is publicly referenced, it is likely they! Searches, often preceded by tank fire varies according to Syrian opposition, the Special troops of the and! To Latakia, where it continues to be active Irbid with the Division was stationed in the and. [ 93 ] both of them can be equipped with TAT-BA-7 bullet-proof vests rank... In the Syrian army, 554th and 556th Special forces units formed during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, first! Repression included abusive tactics, torture, mass arrests, and nearly 300 Artillery pieces that two battalions the! Based at al-Qutayfah, near Damascus. was, in 1967 the army a message saying he was of... And many hold high governmental positions involved would return to Syria be equipped with help. '' at Hama to now: //lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ French regulars to keep the peace in Syria 's navy is the army. Of Syrian military equipment was Soviet manufactured. [ 7 ] ] Anti-regime syrian army 1982 such as the `` events or! A locally-made copy of the beret varies according to the Golan, including the T-62M and T-72B3 2nd was. Battle of Sultan Yacoub in Lebanese Bekaa against Israeli forces were isolating and combing through,! Forces training formation purge of the Syrian and Lebanese armies 53rd and 54th independent Special forces were the only equipped.